New horizons for innovation Project.
1 – An Artificial Intelligence / Robot cannot harm a human being or allow with inaction that a human being can be damaged.
2- An Artificial Intelligence / Robot must obey the orders of human beings, except when those orders come into conflict with the first law.
3 – An Artificial Intelligence / Robot must protect its existence until such protection enters into conflict with the first and second laws.
The substance within the concept of Artificial Intelligence / Robot means a machine or an algorithm capable of operating with a high level of autonomy. The shape and concept of human semblance must be considered in a particular way when an Artificial Intelligence / Robot must operate in an environment suitable for humans. In other areas, this appearance may not be necessary. Another element to consider in the definition of an Artificial Intelligence / Robot is the ability of self-awareness. Why should an Artificial Intelligence / Robot serve a human being? Could a stronger, more dynamically performing and faster machine than a human be trusted? It is also evident that the three laws of Asimov Robotics could conflict with each other and prevent a logical choice by generating a decision loop.
means a machine
Remote, Automa and Robot, these three different expressions that also indicate the levels of dependence on the human being. The most basic condition is certainly the Remote machine. This machine is totally dependent on the Human whose extension it is in fact. The automaton, on the other hand, is by definition a device with a level of independence defined in the design phase, it performs a series of operations based on the program entered. The automaton system (automatic) interacts with various sensors. The Robot on the other hand, is considered (also for cinematographic heritage) a totally independent and thinking unit, conditioned only by the three laws and the operational objectives that are required of it.
of rules for the machine
In Eric Arthur Blair's 1984 novel (aka George Orwell) published in 1949, the cumbersome presence of Big Brother is a prelude to the current situation we experience in everyday life. Artificial intelligence systems are already abundantly present in everyday life. Thanks to its mobile extensions (smartphones), robotics does not have its own shape and has no defined size. The 1984 novel is called a dystopian work, a negative utopia, which pessimistically describes a gloomy future in which, after a nuclear war, the world is divided into totalitarian powers. In 1984 the life of the inhabitants of Oceania was constantly spied on by cameras, called "television screens", present in every home and in every point of the city. These are the tools with which power spreads its propaganda continuously and controls citizens even in their private life, ensuring total control over their lives. The total dependence on smartphone devices puts us in a situation very similar to 1984
Remote control consists of two parts. In the first part, a human command via keyboard, mouse or joystick (in some cases the control is vocal). The second part that takes place away from the operator (remotely) involves an action by a mobile or self-propelled device. The sensors on the unit emulate the operator's body extension.
Efficient and effective communication can take place in analogue mode with the direct control of the device, or digitally through a series of commands that describe a specific action. By speaking code we mean an alphanumeric string that defines the action readable also to the human eye. Example: a K125M92S code in itself seems cryptic, but if you break it down you could interpret it like this: K125indicates a particular actuator, M92 the degrees of rotation, while S the sense of direction or rotation. By raising the level of improvement of this dialogue system, a series of talking macro codes could be envisaged to create complex and combined actions. Adding other factors such as execution time, speed and any breaks. To better demonstrate the effective use of speaking codes in remote control, it is essential to consider eye-hand coordination. While piloting a radio model, it often happens that newbies not accustomed to this type of control do not have a management of the commands that they would like the device to perform. One reason is due to the absence in many cases of a FPV (First Person View) vision. Another element is the fact of not having the necessary sensitivity on the joystik.
Often it happens that an error signal provides a lit or flashing LED, while in more fortunate situations the presence of a display allows the reading of an error code. An evolution of this type of signaling involves a direct dialogue with the operator and a display of real explanatory warnings on the display and / or speakers, with a detailed range of possible causes. In this way, the machine can assist the operator in choosing the most suitable solutions in the specific case, by filing the event and the solution adopted for the future. Human-machine interaction is evolving more and more, with an interactive dialogue with various devices, allowing remote control activities to be integrated and speeded up. An evolution of the systems will allow to guarantee a more efficient Telepresence every time. Better operator perception will ensure more effective operational success.
Current drone systems require constant human supervision to ensure the effectiveness of the action. Drone does not only mean an aerial system, but also a terrestrial unit (Unmanned Ground Vehicle), marine and submarine (Remote Oriented Vehicle). It is evident that it is not possible to delegate an action to the total control of the machine. A weighted management of the systems with macro-commands can foresee a series of combined actions guaranteeing equal efficacy in the results.
Communication standards often vary from model to model and from manufacturer to manufacturer. Standardizing these methods of communication involves the adoption of a real communicative language with relative functional grammar. It could also be better to facilitate the interfacing between different systems by adopting natural languages that can standardize different manufacturers. Mobile system management also provides for the need to have a large number of sensors that make the operator's action immersive. The operator in turn must be able to be assisted by the machine..
Current video surveillance systems are based on fixed cameras or Pan-Till systems (domes). The operator is required to constantly monitor the screens, activities weakened by movement signaling systems that help the operator to identify dangerous or alert situations. These outdoor systems are hampered by weather conditions that can cloud over vegetation, adverse weather and more. The view + obstructed and there are erroneous reporting. The immersive perception obtained thanks to the definition of a surveillance system with virtual mapping of the environment with the adoption of 360 degree cameras favors and discriminates any errors. The controller can thus guarantee a more effective on-site presence.
Remote controls allow an operator to attend and control areas under surveillance. Control via fixed or mobile cameras is currently widespread. The new technologies allow a leap forward with robotic systems for the surveillance in motion of large industrial areas. The next step will be the total autonomy of these remote systems.
The advent of para-intelligent systems seems to be the solution for new surveillance systems. The mobile system that moves within industrial areas ensures a more amorous control. These systems are very effective for medium-sized areas with an urban operating area. The critical issues are reported in front of areas subject to destructured surveillance that foresee trees, steep or uneven ground and situations in which mobility is compromised. For such systems the aerial solution becomes faster and more efficient. The combination of both systems would ensure greater effectiveness.
The defense of the infrastructures and people present in the monitored area is currently entrusted to security guards. The use of non-lethal bollards on board robotic systems can become an effective deterrent. The use of sound, light and gas systems can provide more effective protection of areas of interest.
Every system is vulnerable. By its nature, every device can be circumvented and rendered useless. Human-machine integration combined with a widespread network of different systems can guarantee ever greater protection. The fact remains that human supervision is still indispensable with a fruitful final action.
“Space, the final frontier. Here are the Travels of the spaceship Enterprise ... "With these words a cult TV series began many years ago.
Jules Verne in the writing of his novel "From Earth to the Moon" hypothesizes the launch of the bullet to the Moon from Tampa in Florida. 100 years later the man takes off from Cape Canaveral in Florida to reach the moon. Another example where science fiction anticipated the future was "20,000 leagues under the seas" also by Jules Verne. This time, however, we go into the sea depths, looking beyond the imagination of the writers who have been able to anticipate their present in many cases, giving inspiration to scientists and engineers for innovative solutions to be developed.
and vice versa
Going to the Moon was not a choice dictated by the desire for discovery or desire to expand Human knowledge. The only initial reason was solely and exclusively a political challenge. From the launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957 to the moon landing in July 1969. Space technology became a constant dispute at a distance both from the military point of view and from ideological propaganda.
A theoretical but concrete research on the possibility of colonizing space took place in 1977, thanks to an enlightened physics professor at Princeton University. Gerard K. O’Neill who developed a concrete feasibility study for colonizing space. The objectives of colonizing space were based on the increase in the world population, combined with the decrease in available resources. The humanization of the space will allow access to unlimited energy at low cost.
Space X, Virgin Galactic, Blu Origin and many other companies are physically attempting the path of commercial conquest of the orbital and sub-orbital space. From the refueling of the space station thanks to the Dragon capsule of the company Space X, to the sub-orbital project of Richard Brenson who with Virgin Galactic is about to start the road to space tourism. The private space path is starting to take its first steps not without unknown factors.
The throwing of balls by young and adult children from the backyard is becoming increasingly popular. In August 2010, father and son dedicated themselves to the creation and launch of a balloon that reached the altitude of 30 km in 72 minutes and then fell back to the ground. all immortalized by an action camera that witnesses the event. From 2010 to today there are a myriad of projects to replicate that adventure, up to steam powered balloons to reach launch quotas for small rockets with attached satellite.
Since the beginning of the space age in 1957, a huge amount of space garbage orbits our heads. A total of 8000 tons of space scrap is estimated to orbit the space. A few pieces fall from time to time, but most remain in orbit becoming wandering bullets dangerous for any human activity in space. The space station, which sometimes risks being punctured by some residue, knows something about it.
Inexhaustible mines await on the Moon and a little further, thanks to the presence of asteroids of the Apollo (Asteroid Near-Earth) characterized by an orbit that approaches (and sometimes intersects) the Earth's orbit.
An indicative value of raw metals is useful to understand how much the business associated with mining can be worth. Gold: 50.92 Euro / kg Platinum 23.89 Euro / kg, Palladium 67.36 Euro / kg, Rhodium 295 Euro / kg, Iridium 50.83 Euro / kg, Gallium 244 Euro / kg, titanium 55 Euro / kg, NICKEL 237 Euro / kg, ZINC 1,782 Euro / kg. These values expressed in this way may not be indicative from an Earth extraction perspective. In some cases these economic values are conditioned by their availability, in other cases it is the extractive difficulty. However, a fundamental element for an economic evaluation is the quantity available. Some of the elements listed above are poorly available on earth but very present and available in space.Very rare helium-3 on earth is abundant on the moon, and is priceless.
The Lunar surface offers the opportunity to collect a wide range of raw materials ranging from Rare Earth, Helium-3, Palladio, Platinum, Gold and much more. Mining costs will initially be high. Some US mining companies have concluded that profits will soon outweigh mining costs. It should be considered that the material extracted only to a small extent will be redirected to the ground, the remainder will be used directly on site. The extraction from Apollo class asteroids will prove economically more advantageous given the absence of gravity.
The five points of Lagrange (L)were hypothesized and calculated by the French mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange alias Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia in 1772. L1 is the easiest to reach and is located between the Earth and the Moon, where the gravitational forces of the two bodies are cancel (325,000 km from Earth and 56,000 km from the Moon). L2 is located in front of the hidden face of the Moon, where the resultant of the same forces acts (447,000 km from Earth and 67,000 km from the Moon). L3 is the point of the lunar orbit diametrically opposite to the Moon (380,000 km from Earth and 760,000 km from the Moon). All three are saddle-shaped gravitational "valleys" in which a body placed perpendicular to the Earth-Moon axis is always attracted to the axis itself; for this reason they are unstable equilibrium points (a circular orbit around these points, if the plane of the orbit is perpendicular to the Earth-Moon axis, it is stable as the orbit around a real celestial body). L4 and L5 are located in the lunar orbit at an equal distance from the Earth and the Moon, and form an equilateral triangle with L3 of 380,000 km per side. They, on the other hand, are circular "valleys" in which a body placed in any direction returns to the center, so they are points of stable equilibrium. Lagrangian points are crucial in determining where to build orbiting colonies. L4 and L5 are the most suitable and allowing regular orbits of about 30 days, with small periodic corrections.
Currently each exploration project includes a launcher to send the payload (satellite or probe) into orbit or on the surface of a celestial body. An Interplanetary Shuttle system that optimizes medium and long-haul travel will become necessary in the future. Multi-platform systems will in future guarantee greater contacts and transport with the various places of interest, be they planets or mining sites. It will be necessary to rethink new transport methods, and considering travel times also a more suitable habitability for the human being.
The distances traveled, the distances that will inevitably arise, will generate culturally diverse societies. The businesses will be increasingly defined. The univocal element will be the digital connections that will evolve guaranteeing that single umbilical cord that will (hopefully) unite people. The current prospects are to bring tourists to space, in the future the situation will be turned upside down and people will be taken on holiday to Earth.
The Moon Treaty, drafted by the UN in 1984, sought to clarify extraction rights in space. It says: "The Moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of humanity", moreover the use of the Moon "must be conducted for the good of humanity and the interests of all countries." The Moon Treaty has not been ratified - the only space treaty not to be ratified - because the US and Russia have both spoken out against it, and the OST clause on the extraction of space resources remains unclear. In the past, many economic policy studies have found that in human history where there were economic possibilities there were also political and military interests.
Cleaning up and recycling is not only a polite and responsible act but a necessity to survive.
Ecology is the ability to preserve flora and fauna in a clean environment today is not business. Man can evolve beyond any unimaginable expectation, but preserving his home of origin could become fundamental for the survival and maintenance of the human species. Today the simple separate collection is often badly tolerated because it does not correspond to an economic relief. Technologies and solutions that provide for a circular process, from production to the recovery of the materials used, can become an increasingly compelling and economically appealing way.
It really seems to exist. The plastic island in the Pacific Ocean is not only a media invention but a real place where the plastic we throw ends up accumulated thanks to sea currents. In reality there are many more islands / plastic aggregations in the seas of the world. Micro plastics in particular enter the food cycle and end up on our table. Unfortunately, economic interests prevail and until there is a strong negative signal, governments and companies will take steps to preserve the planet.
It is not expected, and certainly not achievable in human times. The only functioning planet is Planet A, the earth. The earth is the only undisputed resource that requires our help. Looking at it from space, you notice how human activities are spreading on the planet like a virus. Viruses, however, may not be malicious but also benevolent, it depends on the human being.
The trasformation of polluting materials into energy or other materials thanks to the manipulation of matterat the atomic and molecular level. The path, not new for science will allow us to regenerate materials that are diffiult to dispose of as nature does, generating business.